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Men of the highest male grade of Bwami, Lutumbo lwa Kindi, wear hats of this type. Cowries signify wealth, while the elephanttail hairs connect the Kindi grade to the elephant’s quiet, awesome strength. In ceremonies that address the dangers of fighting and Bwami’s corresponding peacekeeping role, women wear their husband’s mukuba hats while handling their equivalent woman’s hat, the lukunia.
Adolph D. and Wilkins C. Williams Fund
"Spirit of the Motherland." Roanoke: Museum of Western Virginia. September 1995- January 1996. Peninsula Fine Arts Center: January- May 1996.
David Park Curry, “What’s in a Frame,” in Eli Wilner, ed., The Gilded Edge in America (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000) p. 155.
Richard B. Woodward, African Art (Richmond, VA: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1994) p. 40, ill.
Woodward, Richard B. African Art: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 2000. (p. 40-41)
Image released via Creative Commons CC-BY-NC
Some object records are not complete and do not reflect VMFA's full and current knowledge. VMFA makes routine updates as records are reviewed and enhanced.
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