Seal for Eucharistic Wafer (Primary Title)

Unknown (Artist)

8th century
Overall: 4 1/8 in. (10.48 cm)
Specially marked bread was blessed and distributed to worshippers on days or at places special to individual saints. This stamp was used for the feast day of St. Philip. The buildings on either side of the figure of the saint may be his tomb and memorial church.
Adolph D. and Wilkins C. Williams Fund
Johnson, Mark Joseph. San Vitale in Ravenna and Octogonal Churches in Late Antiquity. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, 2018. (fig. 3.6, plate 12)

Foskolou, Vicky A. “»Reading« the Images on Pilgrim Mementoes (Eulogies): their Iconography as a Source for the Cult of Saints in the Early Byzantine Period.” In Für Seelenheil Und Lebensglück Das Byzantinische Pilgerwesen Und Seine Wurzeln.edited by Despoina Ariantzi and Ina Eichner, 315-325. Mainz: Verlag Des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 2018. (illus, fig 1, p. 316)

Professor Francesco D’Andra and P. Benno Mikocki, “Das Grab des Apostels Philippus entdeckt…” Betendes Gottes Volk (2014, vol. 24, no. 257): 12-14. Color ill, pp. 14.

Gonosová, Anna, Christine Kondoleon, Lawrence Becker, Deborah Schorsch, Jane L. Williams, and Mark T. Wypyski. “Art of Late Rome and Byzantium: In the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.” Richmond: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1994. (cat. no. 94, pp. 270-273)
Image released via Creative Commons CC-BY-NC

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