Red-Figure Kalyx-Krater (Mixing Bowl) (Primary Title)

attributed to, Nikias Painter (Artist)

ca. 400 BC
Greek (Attic)
Overall: 14 3/4 × 16 1/8 in. (37.47 × 40.96 cm)
According to myth, Hephaestos, god of the forge and fire, attempted to rape Athena, a virgin goddess. Afterwards, Athena cleaned herself with wool, which she dropped to the ground; Ge (or Gaia, the earth goddess), then became pregnant and bore Erichthonios. This vase shows Ge handing Erichthonios to Athena while other gods look on. Erichthonios is also the name of an early king of Athens who was later worshipped as a god in a sanctuary on the Acropolis known as the Erichtheum.
Arthur and Margaret Glasgow Fund
“Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past.” Hood Museum of Art, Darmouth College (Hanover, NH): 23 August-14 December 2003; Onassis Cultural Center (New York, NY): 19 January-1 April 2004; Cincinnati Art Museum (Cincinnati, OH): 1 May-1August 2004; The J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, CA): 14 September-5 December 2004.

“Pandora’s Box: Women in Classical Greece,” Walters Art Museum (Baltimore, MD): 5 November 1995-7 January 1996; Dallas Museum of Art (Dallas, TX): 4 February-31 March 1996; Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig (Basel, Switzerland): 28 April-23 June 1996.
Jones, Gregory S. “The Sculptural Poetics of Euripides' Ion: Reflections of Art, Myth, and Cult from the Parthenon to the Attic Stage.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, vol. 88, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 2019, pp. 727–762. (fig. 1, p. 738; detail, fig. 4, p. 743)

Meyer, Marion. Athena, Göttin von Athen Kult Und Mythos auf der Akropolis bis in klassische Zeit. Wien: Phoibos Verlag, 2017. (color illus, p 644, abb. 370)

Barriault, Anne B., and Kay M. Davidson. Selections from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Richmond, VA: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 2007. (pp. 100-101, ill. pp. 86-87, 101)

"Boys and Girls in Ancient Greece Presented In 'Coming of Age'." Antiques and The Arts Weekly, 20 February 2004, p. 49, b&w ill.

Mulrine, Anna. "Coming of age in ancient times." U.S. News & World Report 136, no. 4 (2 February 2004): p. 54, color ill.

Neils, Jenifer. "A Boy's Life in Ancient Greece." In Striving for Excellence: Ancient Greek Childhood and the Olympic Spirit, edited by Jenifer Neils and John H. Oakley. New York: Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation, 2004, pp. 27-28, fig. 17.

Neils, Jenifer, and John Oakley. Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past, exhibition catalogue. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press in association with Hood Museum of Art, 2003, cat. no. 6, pp. 208-09, color ills. pp. 88, 143 and back cover, b&w ill. p. 208.

Neils, Jenifer, and Katherine W. Hart. "Picturing Ancient Greek Childhood." The Magazine Antiques CLXIV, no. 4 (October 2003): p. 124, color pl. VI.

Lissarrague, François. Vases Grecs: Les Athéniens et Leurs Images. France: Hazan, 1999, pp. 184-86, color ill. p. 184, fig. 144, color det. fig. 145, p. 185.

Shapiro, H. A. “Autochthony and the Visual Arts in Classical Athens.” In Democracy, Empire, and the Arts in Fifth-Century Athens, edited by D. Boedeker and K. Raaflaub. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 142-44, figs. 14-15.

Lee, Kevin H., ed. Euripides Ion. Warminster, Wiltshire, England: Aris & Phillips Ltd., 1997, cover ill. (det.).

Reeder, Ellen D. Pandora: Women in Classical Greece, exhibition catalogue. Baltimore, MD and Princeton, NJ: The Walters Art Gallery in association with Princeton University Press, 1995, cat no. 71, pp. 260-62.

Arafat, K.W. Classical Zeus: A Study in Art and Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990, p. 188 and 211, no. 2.25, pl. 15a-b.

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae V, s.v. “Kallimachos 2.” Union Académique Internationale and UNESCO.

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae IV, s.v. “Hephaistos 221.” Union Académique Internationale and UNESCO.

Oakley, John. “A Calyx-krater in Virginia by the Nikias Painter with the Birth of Erichthonios.” Antike Kunst 30, no. 2 (1987): pp. 123-130, pls. 18-19.
Mayo, Margaret Ellen. “Tradition and Imagination: Five Centuries of Greek Ceramic Art.” Apollo 122, no. 286 (December 1985): p. 28, figs. 8-10.

Neils, Jennifer. “A Greek Nativity by the Meidias Painter.” The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 70, no. 7 (September 1983): p. 277, fig. 7.

Simon, Erika. Die Geburt der Aphrodite. Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 1959, pp. 51-52, abb. 31.
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