Side-Blown Horn (Primary Title)
The British lion and crown on the horn’s sides suggest that it was carved when the Mende people were involved in treaties with the British government, from 1896 to about 1910.
Vogel, Susan. “Africa and the Renaissance.” New York: The Center for African Art. 17 November 1988- 9 April 1989.
“The Art of African Gameboards” (African Mankala.) Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. 20 June - 7 October 1984.
Ezio Bassani and William B. Fagg, Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory (New York: The Center for African Art, 1988) pp. 210-211, ill. no. 285.
Richard B. Woodward, African Art (Richmond, VA: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1994) pp. 32-33, ills.
Brincard, Marie-Therese. Sounding Forms: African Musical Instrument. New York: The American Federation of Arts, 1989. (illus. 107, p. 154)
“African Mankala.” Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. 20 June - 7 October 1984. (exhibition pamphlet)
“Africa & The Renaissance: Art in Ivory at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.” News Release, February 17, 1989.
Gallery Guide. Richmond: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1982. (illus. 30)
Robbins, Warren M. and Nancy Ingram Nooter. African Art in American Collections, Survey 1989. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989. (illus. 284, p.155)
Some object records are not complete and do not reflect VMFA's full and current knowledge. VMFA makes routine updates as records are reviewed and enhanced.